Once you set your goal, you would find that you are smooth-sailing to doing endeavors and efforts that would clearly and obviously lead to attainment of such a target. Thus, Covey's second principle is a necessity on a personal and management level. It is useful on a personal basis if you would use the principle to improve your performance and boost productivity. It will then enable teams to identify and correct problems as they occur in real time. Changeover time Changeover time must be displayed by everyone to see. Knowing the remaining or estimated time to job completion will enable operators to determine when to start internal set-up procedures. These are processes that can be handled during operation or runtime, and is considered one very effective tool of minimizing changeover time. The data gathered shall in turn be used in calculating the other economic components for an accurate reading. The famous Peter Drucker is more to the point: Without productivity objectives, a business does not have direction. Without productivity measurement, it does not have control. Data-gathering Collecting data is an essential requirement in measurement. Baldamus (1961) points out that as the word efficiency has no scientific fundament, we are inclined to assume without question that to maximize efficiency is desirable if not indeed the chief purpose of industrial enterprise. Writers have related the preoccupation with efficiency to the development of a measurement cult that precludes many of the less quantifiable but essential ingredient of a successful enterprise. It is hoped that the application of fuzzy mathematics to such terms may make them useful someday. Productivity improvement This is the change sought, noted, or measured in productivity. It can also refer to the designed change to produce positive changes in the measured productivity. The term also refers to the change in productivity that had resulted from such design change. These studies examined the link between labor productivity and a variety of workplace practices, capital and computers, both in the manufacturing and non-manufacturing sectors. In the conducted studies, the other issues factored in included the size and age of the business, material inputs, capital stock, workers experience, and capacity utilization.